19 Jun BioMould Silage Preservative
Proper Fermentation Stimulant
Ensiling is the preservation of forage based on lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic conditions. The lactic acid bacteria ferment water-soluble carbohydrates in the crop to lactic acid, and to a lesser extent to acetic acid. The production of these acids reduces the pH of the ensiled forage which inhibits spoilage microorganisms’ growth and proliferation (table 1).
One of the factors of a proper management for providing good silage is supplementation of that with some additive. Organic acids are used directly (all over or just on the surface) in the silage, in order to protect it by reduction in PH. Propionic acid and formic acid are mostly used for products containing more than 70% moisture and low in glucose such as maize which is high in moisture.
Table 1: Fermentation process in corn silage
|Days||1||2||3||4-7||8-21||After day 21|
|Events||Cellular respiration and production of CO2, heat and water||Initiation of fermentation, acetic acid production and temperature reduction||Initiation of lactic acid production and continuous of acetic acid production||continuous of lactic acid production and temperature reduction||Continuous of lactic acid and PH reduction of silage and then PH stabilizing.||Termination in bacterial fermentation until silage expose to oxygen|
|Temperature||70OF||95OF||80-85 OF||Environmental temperature|
|PH||6||5||PH reduces to 4 and stabilize in this level|
Formic acid, (43% in BioMould®) as a potential bactericide, improves protein preservation of silage by an immediate acidification which results in inactivating of protein-degrading bacteria. Propionic acid, (16% in BioMould®), as a fungicide, improves dry matter recovery and feedout stability of silage by inhibiting yeast and mold growth as yeast cannot assimilate propionic acid.
Benefits of adding BioMould® to the silage
- BioMould® contains High concentration of formic acid and propionic acid (57%)
- Reduction in PH by applying BioMould® in silage results in Lactic acid bacteria propagation which subsequently induces resistance against Pathogenic molds, Butyric acid bacteria and Clostridia Spp.
- The carrier material releases the acids mainly as gas, so that the acid vapors are equally distributed throughout the silage to be reserved.
- It Increases nutritional value of silage by preserving its crude protein content.
- BioMould® induces quick lactic acid bacteria fermentation which results in protecting nutrients of silage.
- Consequently BioMould® boosts the durability of silage.
Surface and edge treatment of silage
An effective additive may help make good silage better, but it will not make poor silage good. The options to create better silage are manifold. One efficient method is surface treatment of silage.
The treatment of silo surface does not replace complete treatment at ensiling, but, if used properly, it is an efficient protection against losses at the especially endangered parts of the silo. In one study spreading 0.5 kg/m2 on corn silo surface was tested.
Spreading BioMould® on top of the ready to ensile stock is possible, if the silage is sealed air tightly immediately afterwards. Due to the especial product formulation the acids diffuse slowly from the Vermiculite lattice (from the carrier) and concentrates below the silage-film. As the acidic vapors cannot escape, the acids concentrate in the upper layer of the silage and so provide efficient protection. Acid formic in BioMould® caused reduction in aerobic bacteria and clostridia growth and simultaneous increase in Lactobacilli population (table 2). Reduction in yeasts and molds growth demonstrates that volatile acids like propionic acid are better inhibitors for these organisms than lactic acid (table 3).
Table 2- Comparing Means (Test–Duncan) of bacterial cultures in samples treated with and without BioMould® (P<0.05)
(Blood Agar) (CFU/g)
|Dilution of Microbial Suspension|
|Surface Control (without BioMould®)||(260.25 × 105)b||(270.00 × 104)b||(255.25 × 103)b||–||(325.75 × 104)a||(307.75 × 103)a||Hemolysis (β)||Hemolysis (β)||Hemolysis (β)|
|(334.50 × 105)a||(322.00 × 104)a||(324.00 × 103)a||(222.50 × 105)a||(213.25 × 104)b||(214.50 × 103)b||Hemolysis (β)||Hemolysis (β)||Hemolysis (β)|
|Surface Treatment (with BioMould®)||(167.50 × 105)d||(166.50 × 104)d||(168.75 × 103)d||(81.50 × 105)b||(83.50 × 104)c||(84.00 × 103)c||Hemolysis (γ)||Hemolysis (γ)||Hemolysis (γ)|
|(206.50 × 105)c||(204.50 × 104)c||(201.50 × 103)c||(14.75 × 105)c||(15.00 × 104)d||(11.50 × 103)d||Hemolysis (γ)||Hemolysis (γ)||Hemolysis (γ)|
Table 3- Comparing Means (Test–Duncan) of yeast and mold cultures in samples treated with and without BioMould® (P<0.05)
|Yeast (CFU/g)||Mould (CFU/g)|
|Dilution of Microbial Suspension|
|Surface Control (without BioMould®)||(148.70 × 103)a||(133.75 × 102)a||(121.50 × 101)a||(69.75 × 103)a||(61.00 × 102)a||(57.25 × 101)a|
|(110.00 × 103)b||(108.50 × 102)b||(100.50 × 101)a||(30.50 × 103)c||(26.00 × 102)c||(24.00 × 101)c|
|Surface Treatment (with BioMould®)||(95.50 × 103)b||(90.50 × 102)b||(86.25 × 101)ab||(42.50 × 103)b||(41.75 × 102)b||(40.50 × 101)b|
|(76.25 × 103)c||(69.75 × 102)c||(65.75 × 101)b||(22.00 × 103)d||(20.25 × 102)d||(16.00 × 101)d|
In this study, applying BioMould® in the surface of silage lead to reduction in growth of aerobic bacteria and clostridia Spp. because of formic acid effects: reduction in PH and increase in Lactobacilli population growth. The ratio of population of lactobacilli SPP. to population of aerobic species of silage is the most significant parameter for determining the quality of silage surface (table 4).
Table 4- Effects of Biomould® on Lactobacilli to aerobic bacteria ratio
|Lactobacilli to aerobic bacteria ratio|
|Dilution of microbial suspension||104||105||106|
Table 5- Fermentation parameters of corn silage subsequent to adding Biomould®
|standard error of the mean||0.0835||0.1068||0.1931||0.131||0.0427||0.0052||0.0056||0.0123|
|standard error of the mean||0.0836||0.1369||0.2421||0.1312||0.0446||0.0051||0.0056||0.0245|
FW: Fresh Weight
Table 6- Chemical analysis of corn silage subsequent to adding Biomould®
|standard error of the mean||0.0418||0.4265||0.169||0.1458||0.168||0.0652||0.8072||0.331||1.0525|
Adding BioMould® to silage resulted in lactate production due to increase in lactobacilli population. Domination of these species in the silage is directly related to the acidic environment provided by BioMould® (table 5). Wasting energy and protein in silage by Lactobacilli Spp. is lesser than other bacterial species. Simultaneously, BioMould® decreases PH of silage immediately by reducing buffer capacity. This is followed by inhibiting growth yeasts, molds and pathogenic bacteria like clostridia Spp. These microorganisms are butyrate producers and the main protein-degrading factors in the silage.
Ammonia reduction in BioMould®-treated silage is another indicator that demonstrates success in preserving the protein content of silage. Final products of fermentation not only indicate the quality of silage, but also demonstrate the kind of fermented sugars and dominated microorganisms in the silage. Accordingly, amount of lactic acid in the silage is a criterion for its soluble carbohydrate content that can help proper ensilaging.
In this study, adding BioMould® to the silage resulted in significant increase in dry matter content (table 6). It should be noted that propionic acid is the factor for preserving dry matter content and aerobic stability of silage by preventing from yeast and mold growth (propionic acid is a fungicide). Increase in none-fibrous carbohydrates and crude protein is a criterion for increase in dry matter of silage. Formic acid preserved protein content of silage by immediate acidifying and subsequently prevention of protein-degrading bacteria growth.